Slovak Arts

According to act-test-centers, Slovak art, is the art on the territory of today’s Slovak Republic.

Romanesque and Gothic: The earliest surviving architectural evidence comes from the Romanesque (rotunda of St. George in Skalica; eight-apse rotunda in Bíňa; both 12th century). After the occupation by the Magyars in the 12th century, Benedictines (including Nitra Zobor, Hronský Beňaki), Premonstratensians (Jasov) and Cistercians exerted a great influence on the development of art. The first Romanesque churches were built (preferably hall churches, but also three-aisled basilicas; a rich facade structure with blind arcades and twin windows), rotundas and monasteries (including Bzovík near Zvolen, founded in 1130). The first Romanesque castles date from the 13th century, whereby v. a. There was brisk construction activity in the mining areas (Zips).

After the Mongol invasion, Gothic style elements were increasingly adopted, both in sacred (including the former Dominican church in Banská Štiavnica, after 1222 to 1275; “Spiš Cathedral Chapter” in Spišské Podhradie, Prešov district, 1245–73, later rebuilt) and in secular buildings (castles from Bratislava, Spiš, Trenčín, Orava etc.). The highlights of Gothic architecture in Slovakia are the St. Martin Cathedral in Bratislava (1302–1452), the St. Jacob Church in Levoča (1332–42, later expanded), the St. John’s Chapel (1380) of the Franciscan monastery in Bratislava, the St. Elisabeth Cathedral in Košice (1390 ff.) And the Agidius Church in Bardejov (1415). The late Gothic buildings clearly show the influence of the Danube Gothic, which was linked to the Prague School of Parler. Outstanding is inter alia.

The Italian influence led to a flourishing of castles (regular, rectangular hall with an open inner courtyard). Architectural changes were experienced by v. a. the mining towns (including the new construction of the main square in Banská Bystrica; public buildings and market square in Kremnica).

The Gothic wall painting shows both Western European and Italian influences (church in Dravce near Levoča, around 1300). Panel painting is related to v. a. with Hungarian, Bohemian, Polish and Austrian painting (altar of St. Barbara from Bardejov and altar from Matejovce, both around 1450; Elizabeth altar in the Elizabeth church in Košice, 1474–77). In the field of sculpture, v. a. important works made of wood have been preserved, e. B. the altar of St. Barbara in the Church of Mary in Banská Bystrica (1509), the main altar of the Church of St. Jacob in Levoča (completed in 1517) and the altar of St. George in Poprad, district Spišská Sobota (1517).

Renaissance: From around 1510, the Renaissance influenced architecture. It was initially mediated by Hungary (Matthias I. Corvinus, Wladislaw II. Jagiello). The Thurzó family (Johann, * 1464, † 1520; Stanislaus, † 1540; Sigismund, † 1512), who had family ties with the Fuggers, was active as a patron in Banská Bystrica and Nitra. In the 16th century there was a lively humanistic and artistic exchange in East Central Europe. Style forms of the Italian Renaissance on town houses, city palaces and parish houses were (town hall in Bardejov).

The sacred architecture was also influenced by Italian (sgraffiti as facade decoration, free-standing bell towers, among others in Spiš, Kežmarok, Nehre). Austrian influences from the Renaissance also shaped entire cities (including Poprad, Spišská Sobota) and the castles that have now been converted into castles (including Zvolen, Nové Zámky).

Baroque: The Jesuit Church of the University in Trnava (1629–37) was the first large baroque building in Slovakia. He was followed by, among others. the Trinity Church in Bratislava (1715–25), the Piarist Church in Nitra (1750–70) and the Premonstratensian Monastery of Jasov (1750–66, based on plans by A. Pilgram). Exemplary for the numerous wooden churches that have been in existence since the 15th and 16th centuries. The Protestant churches in Kežmarok (1717) and Hronsek (1725–28) were built in the 19th century. The Eszterházy Palace in Bratislava (1648) stands out among the numerous reconstructions of castles, manors and chateaus. Under the reign of Maria Theresa The result was buildings with axial floor plans, elaborate facade designs and rich interior fittings (Hall of Mirrors in the Primate’s Palace of Archbishop von Gran in Bratislava, 1777–81).

In Baroque sculpture and painting, works by artists from Austria, Bohemia and Hungary dominated (A. Pozzo; F. X. K. Palko; Johann Baptist Wenzel Bergl, * 1718, † 1789). The illusionism typical of baroque painting was shown by v. a. in monastery buildings (Jasov; Trenčín; Nitra; Bratislava). The sculpture was under the strong influence of G. R. Donner.

19th century: During historicism, v. a. the nobility the neo-Gothic style (expansion of castles or castle ruins); In the bourgeois context, influences from the Renaissance and Classicism were more active, and there was also a preference for exotic motifs (bath house in Trenčianske Teplice; Protestant church in Kežmarok). The sculptors and painters of the 19th century took up inspiration from contemporary European trends. The preference for motifs and scenes from folk life is characteristic (Dominik Skutecký, * 1849, † 1921; Jozef Hanula, * 1863, † 1944). Jozef Božetech Klemens (* 1817, † 1883) stood out as a portrait painter. Ladislav Medňanský (* 1852, † 1919) and Ludovít Čordák (* 1864, † 1937).

Modern and present: At the beginning of the 20th century, architecture opened up to the tendencies of new building under the leadership of J. Krejcar and B. Fuchs. Also in more recent architecture, partly with reference to the 1920s and 30s, v a. in Bratislava, the beginnings of a strict modernity can be observed: the archaeological museum at Ferdinand Milučkýs Castle (1988) and a villa by Jozef Ondriš and Juraj Závodný (1993) as well as smaller church buildings in the vicinity and in eastern Slovakia.

In 1921 the artists’ association “Umelecká beseda slovenska” was founded in Bratislava. In the period that followed, v. a. Ján Koniarek (* 1878, † 1952), Jozef Kostka (* 1912, † 1996), Rudolf Pribiš (* 1913, † 1984) and Alexander Trizuljak (* 1921, † 1990), in the painting Martin Benka (* 1888, † 1971), L. Fulla, Jakub Bauernfreund (* 1904, † 1976), Bedrich Hoffstädter (* 1910, † 1954), in the field of graphics Koloman Sokol (* 1902, † 2003), Vincent Hložník (* 1919, † 1997) and A. Brunovský.

Contemporary art in Slovakia shows openness, a love of experimentation and a desire for combinations that transcend genre boundaries, including: Installations and series of works by Peter Rónai (* 1953), Rudolf Sikora (* 1946), Dezider Tóth (* 1947), Juraj Meliš (* 1942), Katarina Zavarskà (* 1948). Abstract art pioneers include: Josef Jankovic (* 1937, † 2017) and Jan Fekete (* 1958).

The tendency in painting to combine figurative depiction and abstract painting gestures is represented, among other things. Rudolf Fila (* 1932, † 2015), Daniel Fischer (* 1950), Ivan Csudai (* 1959), Laco Teren (* 1960) and Tomáš Císařovský (* 1962). Victor Hulík (* 1949) breaks up the picture surface into individual particles in his tableaus. Stano Filko (* 1937, † 2015), Matej Krén (* 1958), Otis Laubert (* 1946), Milan Pagáč (* 1960), Karol Pichler (* 1957) and Jozef Šramka (* 1957) create sculptural assemblages. From the field of photography between staging and documentation, among others Robo Kočan (* 1968), Martin Štrba (* 1961) and Vasil Stánko (* 1962) should be mentioned. Established representatives of media art, which has been popular since the late 1980s, include: Peter Meluzin (* 1947) and Jana Želibská (* 1941).

Slovak Arts