Brazil Literature Part 2

Already in the 1970s, however, a new poetry of young people had manifested itself in forms of polemical marginalism (and the denominations are “marginal poetry”, “independent poetry”, “alternative poetry”). Widespread in artisan sheets in bars, cinemas, on the streets, it is now channeled into small magazines and self-financed micro-publishing houses, where, in conversation with the first modernist avant-gardes, texts of ironic or painful everyday life, erotic texts are published or mysticism of neo-romantic recovery, in which the individualistic ” counterculture ” of the city is the counterpoint to the ” popular literature ” still present in the folhas de cordel which, from the fairs of the Northeast, reach the metropolises of Rio and San Paolo.

Anche da questi ”marginali” I hide peraltro poeti che entering the great Nazi circuit (Francisco Alvim, Poesias reunited 1968-88, 1988; Antônio Carlos de Brito, ”Cacaso”, 1944-1989: School group, 1974; Ricardo). by Carvalho Duarte, ”Chacal”: April Drops, 1983; Paulo Leminski, 1943-1989: Distracted We Will Win, 1987; Ana Cristina César, 1952-1983: At your feet, 1982; ecc.).

In the 1980s, however, with the exception of a few texts of socio-political reflection, such as Que país é este? , 1980, by Affonso Romano de Sant’Anna, Brazilian poetry continues to be made in subjective forms in which the problematic lyricism of philosophical aspirations alternates with the confessionism of social conflict: and here is again the poetry of the marginals, the feminist poetry, the black poetry, which is revealed in anthologies such as Axé, 1982, or A Razão da chama, 1986. The poets are nevertheless legion, and it will be worthwhile to list at least the best-known ones while waiting for their leaders to emerge over the years: Walmir Ayala (b. 1933: Os reinos e as vestes, 1986), Renata Pallottini (b.1931Praça maior, 1988), Carlos Néjar (b. 1939: Livro de gazéis, 1984), José Godoy Garcia (A casa do virmundo, 1980), Hilda Hilst (Amavisse, 1990), Adélia Prado (O Pelicano, 1987), Alberto da Costa e Silva, Léila Coelho Frota, Myriam Fraga, Fernando Py, Ivan Junqueira, Foed Castro Chamma (Sons de ferraria, 1989), Reynaldo Valinho Alvares (The Sun in the bowels, 1982), Pedro Lyra (Decision, 1983), Olga Savary (Portraits, 1989), Cláudio Willer.

Also in Brazil, as everywhere, the theater, as a stimulus of dramatic literature, seems to mark the step, in favor of the theater show, which includes the recovery of great texts of the past. The national repertoire still favors the historical genre, with the intent of actualizing satire, alongside the comedy of modern costumes rewritten by young ” rioters ” and set in the studio apartment of the metropolis, where the dramas of loneliness and despair mature.

But the big names are still those of the seventies: Nelson Rodrigues (1912-1980), Hermilo Borba Filho (1917-1976), Oduvaldo Viana Filho (” Vianinha ”, 1936-1976), A. Dias Gomes (b. 1922; with a parabola che va from O Pagador de Promises, 1960, to O Túnel, 1972, and As Primícias, 1977, icastica allegory of power), Millôr Fernandes (b.1924), author of highly successful comedies, João Bethencourt (b.1924: The oil Cinderella, 1976), Plínio Marcos (b. 1935: Paper men, 1977, as always set in the world of the marginalized in São Paulo), Augusto Boal (b.1931), Paulo Pontes (1940 -1976), already artistically linked to Chico Buarque de Hollanda, Jorge de Andrade (1922-1984), Consuelo de Castro (b.1947: Crucificado, 1977), Leilah Assunção (b.1944), César Viana, Roberto Athayde (b . 1949: Apareceu a Margarida, 1973, apologue on the dictatorship).

Where, however, the Brazilian literature of the eighties reveals all its vitality is in the narrative. Here too past experiences and new proposals intersect: with a persistence of regionalism alongside an intimist realism and an explosion of the fantastic and the marvelous that even fits into the folds of everyday life and that mixed genre, typically Brazilian, which is la crónica: where, alongside consecrated names such as Rubem Braga (Recado de Primavera, 1984), Fernando Sabino (A falta que ela me faz, 1980; O gato sou eu, 1983), there are also names of large-scale humorists such as Luís Fernando Veríssimo, or of already famous storytellers, such as João Ubaldo Ribeiro, made known by the novels S argento Getúlio, 1971 (trad. It., 1986) and Viva o Povo Brasileiro, 1984; or as Márcio Sousa (n. 1925), as popular with the lucky fable Amazon Galvez imperador do Acre, 1977 (trans. trans., 1982) and more recently the author of the Chronicles of A resistível ascensão do Boto TUCUXI, 1982. He advances the fiction of minorities, of the marginalized here too: black literature, erotic literature by a protestor and provocative feminism; but also, as an interesting revival of realism, memorial prose and novel-truth. Both the short story, with a city theme (Dalton Trevisan, Assis Brasil, Edilberto Coutinho, Ivan Angelo, João António, JJ Veiga, Luis Vilela, Roberto Drummond, José Loureiro) and the wide-ranging novel are cultivated. And here, established and novice narrators coexist on the same literary scene.

Jorge Amado (b.1912) continues to produce and affect the market, which in this decade passes from the mockery of institutions (Farda, fardão, camisola de dormir, 1980; trad. It., 1983) to the myths of foundation (Tocaia grande: a face obscura, 1984; trans. it., 1985) and erotic evasion (O Sumiço da Santa, 1988; trans. it., 1989); Zélia Gattai, his companion and biographer (Anarquistas graças a Deus, 1979; trans. It., 1983; Um chapéu para viagem, 1982); Antônio Callado (b. 1917), who after the successful Quarup continues to produce multifaceted allegories of the prevaricating power: Reflexo do Baile, 1976; Sempreviva, 1981; The Montaigne Expedition, 1982; Memoirs of Aldenahm House, 1985; Adonias Filho (b. 1915), passing from the regionalist novel, As Velhas (1975), to the urban racconto, The Man in White, 1988. The anchor Josué Montello, Mário Palmeiro, Autran Dourado, O. França Júnior, António Torres, Raduan Nassar, Bernardo Elis, Carlos Heitor Cony, Ignácio de Loyola Brandão, António Olinto. It has a particular impact on the public south by the sapient blond structure of politic ascendancy and the speed and romance script of Rubem Fonseca (Happy New Year, 1975, su cui Marcelo Rubens Paiva ricalcherà il suo fortunato Happy old year, 1982 [trans. it., 1988 ]; and inoltre: A Grande Arte, 1983; Bufo and Spallanzani, 1985; Vast Emotions, and Imperfect Thoughts, 1989). Di buon pregio letterario alcune opere di scrittrici di vena sometimes ironic and sometimes fantastic, eats Lygia Fagundes Telles (Praia Viva, 1944; The girls, 1973; Seminary of rats, 1973; The naked hours, 1989), Nélida Piñón (The Republic of the dreams, 1987), Edla Van Steen, Maria Alice Barroso (The squatters, 1989).

Counterpointed by a modern and fierce criticism (Eduardo Portella, Silviano Santiago, JG Merquior, Benedito Nunes, Costa Lima), this stimulating panorama reflects the hopes and anxieties of a country of great resources, tormented by very serious problems and called to make environmental choices of world ecological impact.

Brazil Literature 2